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Script structure

A script in Pine Script™ follows this general structure:

<version>
<declaration_statement>
<code>

Comments

Double slashes (//) define comments in Pine Script™. Comments can begin anywhere on the line. They can also follow Pine Script™ code on the same line:

//@version=5
indicator("")
// This line is a comment
a = close // This is also a comment
plot(a)

The Pine Script™ Editor has a keyboard shortcut to comment/uncomment lines: ctrl + /. You can use it on multiple lines by highlighting them first.

Version

A compiler directive in the following form tells the compiler which of the versions of Pine Script™ the script is written in:

//@version=5
  • The version number can be 1 to 5.
  • The compiler directive is not mandatory, but if omitted, version 1 is assumed. It is strongly recommended to always use the latest version.
  • While it is synctactically correct to place the version directive anywhere in the script, it is much more useful to readers when placed at the top of the script.

Notable changes to the current version of Pine Script™ are documented in the Release notes.

Declaration statement

All Pine scripts must contain a declaration statement, which is a call to one of these functions:

The declaration statement:

  • Identifies the type of the script, which in turn dictates which content is allowed in it, and how it can be used and executed.
  • Sets key properties of the script such as its name, where it will appear when it is added to a chart, the precision and format of the values it displays, and certain values that govern its runtime behavior, such as the maximum number of drawing objects it will display on the chart. With strategies, the properties include parameters that control backtesting, such as initial capital, commission, slippage, etc.

Each type of script has distinct requirements:

  • Indicators must contain at least one function call which produces output on the chart (e.g., plot(), plotshape(), barcolor(), line.new(), etc.).
  • Strategies must contain at least one strategy.*() call, e.g., strategy.entry().
  • Libraries must contain at least one library function declaration.

Code

Lines in a script that are not comments or compiler directives are statements, which implement the script’s algorithm. A statement can be one of these:

Statements can be arranged in multiple ways:

  • Some statements can be expressed in one line, like most variable declarations, lines containing only a function call or single-line function declarations. Others, like structures, always require multiple lines because they require a local block.
  • Statements in the global scope of the script (i.e., which are not part of local blocks) cannot begin with white space (space or tab). Their first character must also be the line’s first character. Lines beginning in a line’s first position become by definition part of the script’s global scope.
  • Structures or multi-line function declarations always require a local block. A local block must be indented by a tab or four spaces. Each local block defines a distinct local scope.
  • Multiple one-line statements can be concatenated on a single line by using the comma (,) as a separator.
  • Lines can contain comments, or be comments.
  • Lines can also be wrapped (continued on multiple lines).

A simple valid Pine Script™ v5 indicator can be generated in the Pine Script™ Editor by using the “Open” button and choosing “New blank indicator”:

//@version=5
indicator("My Script")
plot(close)

This indicator includes three local blocks, one in the f() function declaration, and two in the variable declaration using an if structure:

//@version=5

indicator("", "", true)    // Declaration statement (global scope)

barIsUp() =>    // Function declaration (global scope)
    close > open    // Local block (local scope)

plotColor = if barIsUp()  // Variable declaration (global scope)
    color.green     // Local block (local scope)
else
    color.red       // Local block (local scope)

bgcolor(color.new(plotColor, 70))   // Call to a built-in function  (global scope)

You can bring up a simple Pine Script™ v5 strategy by selecting “New blank strategy” instead:

//@version=5
strategy("My Strategy", overlay=true, margin_long=100, margin_short=100)

longCondition = ta.crossover(ta.sma(close, 14), ta.sma(close, 28))
if (longCondition)
    strategy.entry("My Long Entry Id", strategy.long)

shortCondition = ta.crossunder(ta.sma(close, 14), ta.sma(close, 28))
if (shortCondition)
    strategy.entry("My Short Entry Id", strategy.short)

Line wrapping

Long lines can be split on multiple lines, or “wrapped”. Wrapped lines must be indented with any number of spaces, provided it’s not a multiple of four (those boundaries are used to indent local blocks):

a = open + high + low + close

may be wrapped as:

a = open +
      high +
          low +
             close

A long plot() call may be wrapped as:

plot(ta.correlation(src, ovr, length),
   color = color.new(color.purple, 40),
   style = plot.style_area,
   trackprice = true)

Statements inside user-defined function declarations can also be wrapped. However, since a local block must syntactically begin with an indentation (4 spaces or 1 tab), when splitting it onto the following line, the continuation of the statement must start with more than one indentation (not equal to a multiple of four spaces). For example:

updown(s) =>
    isEqual = s == s[1]
    isGrowing = s > s[1]
    ud = isEqual ?
           0 :
           isGrowing ?
               (nz(ud[1]) <= 0 ?
                     1 :
                   nz(ud[1])+1) :
               (nz(ud[1]) >= 0 ?
                   -1 :
                   nz(ud[1])-1)

You can use comments in wrapped lines:

//@version=5
indicator("")
c = open > close ? color.red :
  high > high[1] ? color.lime : // A comment
  low < low[1] ? color.blue : color.black
bgcolor(c)
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