This indicator is for educational purposes to lay the groundwork for future closed/open source indicators. Some of thee future indicators will employ parameter estimation methods described below, others will require complex solvers such as the Nelder-Mead algorithm on log likelihood estimations to derive optimal parameter values for omega, gamma, alpha, and beta...

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For a reset option type 2, the strike is reset in a similar way as a reset option 1. That is, the strike is reset to the asset price at a predetermined future time, if the asset price is below (above) the initial strike price for a call (put). The payoff for such a reset call is max(S - X, 0), and max(X - S, 0) for a put, where X is equal to the original strike X...

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These options can be exercised at their initial maturity date /I but are extended to T2 if the option is out-of-the-money at ti. The payoff from a writer-extendible call option at time T1 (T1 < T2) is (via "The Complete Guide to Option Pricing Formulas") c(S, X1, X2, t1, T2) = (S - X1) if S>= X1 else cBSM(S, X2, T2-T1) and for a writer-extendible put is ...

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In a reset call (put) option, the strike is reset to the asset price at a predetermined future time, if the asset price is below (above) the initial strike price. This makes the strike path-dependent. The payoff for a call at maturity is equal to max((S-X)/X, 0) where is equal to the original strike X if not reset, and equal to the reset strike if reset....

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A fade-in call has the same payoff as a standard call except the size of the payoff is weighted by how many fixings the asset price were inside a predefined range (L, U). If the asset price is inside the range for every fixing, the payoff will be identical to a plain vanilla option. More precisely, for a call option, the payoff will be max(S(T) - X, 0) X 1/n...

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A log contract, first introduced by Neuberger (1994) and Neuberger (1996), is not strictly an option. It is, however, an important building block in volatility derivatives (see Chapter 6 as well as Demeterfi, Derman, Kamal, and Zou, 1999). The payoff from a log contract at maturity T is simply the natural logarithm of the underlying asset divided by the strike...

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A log option introduced by Wilmott (2000) has a payoff at maturity equal to max(log(S/X), 0), which is basically an option on the rate of return on the underlying asset with strike log(X). The value of a log option is given by: (via "The Complete Guide to Option Pricing Formulas") e^−rT * n(d2)σ√(T − t) + e^−rT*(log(S/K) + (b −σ^2/2)T) * N(d2) where N(*) is...

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A log contract, first introduced by Neuberger (1994) and Neuberger (1996), is not strictly an option. It is, however, an important building block in volatility derivatives (see Chapter 6 as well as Demeterfi, Derman, Kamal, and Zou, 1999). The payoff from a log contract at maturity T is simply the natural logarithm of the underlying asset divided by the strike...

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At maturity, a powered call option pays off max(S - X, 0)^i and a put pays off max(X - S, 0)^i . Esser (2003 describes how to value these options (see also Jarrow and Turnbull, 1996, Brockhaus, Ferraris, Gallus, Long, Martin, and Overhaus, 1999). (via "The Complete Guide to Option Pricing Formulas") b=r options on non-dividend paying stock b=r-q options on...

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Power options can lead to very high leverage and thus entail potentially very large losses for short positions in these options. It is therefore common to cap the payoff. The maximum payoff is set to some predefined level C. The payoff at maturity for a capped power call is min . Esser (2003) gives the closed-form solution: (via "The Complete Guide to Option...

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Standard power options (aka asymmetric power options) have nonlinear payoff at maturity. For a call, the payoff is max(S^i - X, 0), and for a put, it is max(X - S^i , 0), where i is some power (i > 0). The value of this power call is given by (see Heynen and Kat, 1996c; Zhang, 1998; and Esser, 2003). (via "The Complete Guide to Option Pricing Formulas") c = S^i...

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There are two main categories of power options. Standard power options' payoff depends on the price of the underlying asset raised to some power. For powered options, the "standard" payoff (stock price in excess of the exercise price) is raised to some power. A power contract is a simple derivative instrument paying (S/ X)^i at maturity, where i is some fixed...

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A moneyness option is basically a plain vanilla option where the strike is set to a percentage of the future/forward price. For example, a 120% moneyness call would have a strike equal to 120% of the forward price. A 120% moneyness put would have a spot equal to 120% of the strike. The value of this option is given in percent of the forward. The value of a...

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A forward start option with time to maturity T starts at-the-money or proportionally in- or out-of-the-money after a known elapsed time t in the future. The strike is set equal to a positive constant a times the asset price S after the known time t. If a is less than unity, the call (put) will start 1 - a percent in-the-money (out-of-the- money); if a is unity,...

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The Jennergren and Naslund (1993) formula takes into account that an employee or executive often loses her options if she has to leave the company before the option's expiration: (via "The Complete Guide to Option Pricing Formulas") c = e^(-lambda*T) * (Se^((b-r)T) * N(d1) - Xe^-rT * N(d2)) p = e^(-lambda*T) * (Xe^(-rT) * N(-d2) - Se^(b-r)T * N(-d1)) where ...

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Handley (2001) describes how to value variable purchase options (VPO). A VPO is basically a call option, but where the number of underlying shares is stochastic rather than fixed, or more precisely, a deterministic function of the asset price. The strike price of a VPO is typically a fixed discount to the underlying share price at maturity. The payoff at maturity...

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Perpetual American Options is Perpetual American Options pricing model. This indicator also includes numerical greeks. American Perpetual Options While there in general is no closed-form solution for American options (except for non-dividend-paying stock call options) it is possible to find a closed-form solution for options with an infinite time to...

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American Approximation Bjerksund & Stensland 2002 is an American Options pricing model. This indicator also includes numerical greeks. You can compare the output of the American Approximation to the Black-Scholes-Merton value on the output of the options panel. The Bjerksund & Stensland (2002) Approximation The Bjerksund and Stensland (2002) approximation...

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