Appendix A. Pine Script v2 preprocessor

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Algorithm of @version=2 Pine Script preprocessor in pseudo-code:

  1. Remove comments
  2. Replace \r\n or \r with just \n
  3. Add \n to the end of the text if it’s missing
  4. Lines that contain only whitespace replace with just empty strings
  5. Add |INDENT| tokens. They indicate that statement is in a block of code, such as function body, if or for body. Every tab or four spaces are replaced with token |INDENT|.
  6. Add |B| and |E| tokens. They indicate line begin and line end. Replace empty lines with |EMPTY| tokens.
  7. Join lines that represent one splitted statement.
  8. Add code block tokens (|BEGIN| - beginning of the block, |END| - end of the block, |PE| - possible end of the block).

This is illustrated by example. Initial Pine Script text. Note there is a comment //@version=2 on the first line, it’s a directive that helps to choose correct Pine Script preprocessor/parser version.

"//@version=2
study('Preprocessor example')
fun(x, y) =>
    if close > open // This line has one indent
        x + y // This line has two indents
    else 
        x - y
    // Some whitespace and a comment

a = sma(close, 10)
b = fun(a, 123)
c = security(tickerid, period, b)
plot(c, title='Out', color=c > c[1] ? lime : red, // This statement will be continued on the next line
     style=linebr, trackprice=true) // It's prefixed with 5 spaces, so it won't be considered as an indent
alertcondition(c > 100)"

After steps 1), 2), 3) and 4).

"
study('Preprocessor example')
fun(x, y) =>
    if close > open 
        x + y 
    else 
        x - y
    

a = sma(close, 10)
b = fun(a, 123)
c = security(tickerid, period, b)
plot(c, title='Out', color=c > c[1] ? lime : red, 
     style=linebr, trackprice=true) 
alertcondition(c > 100)
"

After step 5). Every 4 spaces has been replaced with |INDENT| token. Note that 8 spaces replaced with two |INDENT| tokens and so on.

"
study('Preprocessor example')
fun(x, y) =>
|INDENT|if close > open 
|INDENT||INDENT|x + y 
|INDENT|else 
|INDENT||INDENT|x - y
    

a = sma(close, 10)
b = fun(a, 123)
c = security(tickerid, period, b)
plot(c, title='Out', color=c > c[1] ? lime : red, 
|INDENT| style=linebr, trackprice=true) 
alertcondition(c > 100)
"

After step 6).

"|EMPTY|
|B|study('Preprocessor example')|E|
|B|fun(x, y) =>|E|
|B||INDENT|if close > open |E|
|B||INDENT||INDENT|x + y |E|
|B||INDENT|else |E|
|B||INDENT||INDENT|x - y|E|
|EMPTY|
|EMPTY|
|B|a = sma(close, 10)|E|
|B|b = fun(a, 123)|E|
|B|c = security(tickerid, period, b)|E|
|B|plot(c, title='Out', color=c > c[1] ? lime : red, |E|
|B||INDENT| style=linebr, trackprice=true) |E|
|B|alertcondition(c > 100)|E|
|EMPTY|"

After step 7). Note that line with plot(c, title= has been joined with the next line.

"|EMPTY|
|B|study('Preprocessor example')|E|
|B|fun(x, y) =>|E|
|B||INDENT|if close > open |E|
|B||INDENT||INDENT|x + y |E|
|B||INDENT|else |E|
|B||INDENT||INDENT|x - y|E|
|EMPTY|
|EMPTY|
|B|a = sma(close, 10)|E|
|B|b = fun(a, 123)|E|
|B|c = security(tickerid, period, b)|E|
|B|plot(c, title='Out', color=c > c[1] ? lime : red, style=linebr, trackprice=true) |E|
|EMPTY|
|B|alertcondition(c > 100)|E|
|EMPTY|"

After step 8).

"|EMPTY|
|B|study('Preprocessor example')|E|
|B|fun(x, y) =>|E|
|BEGIN||B|if close > open |E|
|BEGIN||B|x + y |E||END||PE|
|B|else |E|
|BEGIN||B|x - y|E|
|EMPTY|
|EMPTY||END||PE||END||PE|
|B|a = sma(close, 10)|E|
|B|b = fun(a, 123)|E|
|B|c = security(tickerid, period, b)|E|
|B|plot(c, title='Out', color=c > c[1] ? lime : red, style=linebr, trackprice=true) |E|
|EMPTY|
|B|alertcondition(c > 100)|E|
|EMPTY|"

Done. This text is ready to be processed by Pine Script lexer and parser. There are lexer and parser grammars for your reference.

After the lexer/parser processing, we’d have an AST:

"
(FUN_CALL study (FUN_ARGS 'Preprocessor example'))
(FUN_DEF fun (FUN_DEF_EXPR (FUN_HEAD x y) (FUN_BODY (FUN_RET (IF_THEN_ELSE (> close open) 
THEN (FUN_BODY (FUN_RET (+ x y))) 
ELSE (FUN_BODY (FUN_RET (- x y))))))))
(VAR_DEF a (FUN_CALL sma (FUN_ARGS close 10)))
(VAR_DEF b (FUN_CALL fun (FUN_ARGS a 123)))
(VAR_DEF c (FUN_CALL security (FUN_ARGS tickerid period b)))
(FUN_CALL plot (FUN_ARGS c (KW_ARG title 'Out') (KW_ARG color (? (> c (SQBR c 1)) lime red)) (KW_ARG style linebr) (KW_ARG trackprice true)))
(FUN_CALL alertcondition (FUN_ARGS (> c 100)))
"

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