Literals

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Fixed values assigned with immediate values (e.g., 10, 2, "value"), which may not be altered by the script, are called literals. Literals can only be a type of integer, float, bool and string.

Footnote: in Pine there are no literals which represent values of a series type. Instead, there are built-in variables of a series type (such as open, high, low, close, volume, hl2, hlc3, ohlc4). These variables are not literals.

Integer Literals

Integral-valued literals can be presented only in the decimal system. Examples:

1
750
94572
100

Floating-point Literals

Real literals in comparison with integral-valued literals contain a delimiter (the symbol .) and/or the symbol e (which means “multiply by 10 to the power of X”, where X is the number after the symbol e) or both. Examples:

3.14159    // 3.14159
6.02e23    // 6.02 * 10^23
1.6e-19    // 1.6 * 10^-19
3.0        // 3.0

The first number is the rounded number Pi (π), the second number is very large, while the third is very small. The fourth number is simply the number ‘3’ as a floating point number.

Footnote: it’s possible to use uppercase “E” instead of lowercase “e”.

Boolean Literals

There are only two literals for representing logical values:

true          // true value
false         // false value

String Literals

String literals may be enclosed by single or double quotation marks, for example:

"This is a double quoted string literal"
'This is a single quoted string literal'

Single or double quotation marks are completely the same — you may use what you prefer. The line that was written with double quotation marks may contain a single quotation mark, just as a line that is written with single quotation marks may contain double quotation marks:

"It's an example"
'The "Star" indicator'

If a user needs to put either double quotation marks in a line that is enclosed by double quotation marks (or put single quotation marks in a line that is enclosed by single quotation marks,) then they must be preceded with backslash. Examples:

'It\'s an example'
"The \"Star\" indicator"

Color Literals

Color literals have the following format: # followed by 6 or 8 hexadecimal digits matching RGB or RGBA value. The first two digits determine the value for the Red color component, the second two — for green, and the third pair — the value for the Blue component. Fourth pair of digits is optional. When set, it specifies the ‘alpha’ (opacity) value. Examples:

#000000                // black color
#FF0000                // red color
#00FF00                // green color
#0000FF                // blue color
#FFFFFF                // white color
#808080                // gray color
#3ff7a0                // some custom color
#FF000080                // semi-transparent red color
#00FF00FF                // same as #00FF00
#00FF0000                // completely transparent color

It is possible to change transparency of the color using build-in function color.

Footnote: When using hexadecimal figures it’s possible to use them in either upper or lowercase.


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