Japan's stock market consists of 4 stock exchanges: the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), the Nagoya Stock Exchange (NSE), the Sapporo Securities Exchange (SSE) and the Fukuoka Stock Exchange (FSE). The TSE is the largest stock exchange of Japan and the fourth largest stock exchange in the world with over 3,500 listed companies as of 2016. Japan's stock market features many prominent multinational companies with a global reputation, that are actively traded, such as Mitsubishi, Toshiba, Sharp, Sony, Fujitsu, Nissan, Panasonic and Canon.

The Nikkei 225, commonly referred to as the Nikkei, was created in 1950 and has become the premier index of Japanese stocks. It is used around the globe and is in fact the most widely quoted index of the movement of Japanese stocks. It tracks the performance of 225 representative TSE stocks across all major sectors. Another important stock index is the TOPIX, which tracks the performance of all domestic companies of the First Section of the TSE.