The Moscow Exchange (MOEX) and the Stock Exchange Saint-Petersburg (SPBEX) are the two largest exchanges operating on the Russian stock market. Apart from stocks, they also offer bonds, currencies and futures. The largest Russian stock exchange by far is MOEX, headquartered in Moscow, Russia's capital and leading economic center. It was established in December 2011 after merging the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange (MICEX) and the Russian Trading System (RTS).

It lists many prominent multinational companies that are actively traded such as Gazprom, Sberbank, Rosneft, Lukoil, Nornickel and VTB Bank. The MICEX is a key stock index tracking the performance of the 50 most liquid Russian stocks from the main sectors of the Russian economy. It is denominated in Rubles. Another key index is the RTSI, which does the same as the MICEX but is denominated in US Dollars. Both indices trade under the umbrella of the MOEX since the aforementioned merger.