The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) is the largest stock exchange in South Africa and the largest exchange on the continent of Africa. It was founded in 1887 and is headquartered in Johannesburg, the country's largest city and the seat of the financial sector. The JSE has a high level of authority and sets the rules for listing and trading. It is supervised by the Financial Services Board, a financial regulatory agency. Electronic trading is conducted through Millennium Exchange, a trading system developed by the London Stock Exchange. It lists 376 companies with a market cap of $959 billion and also houses bonds, ETFs and derivatives. JSE is a member of the Sustainable Stock Exchanges, a project of the United Nations.

Among the listings are well-known and actively traded companies such as the Barclays Africa Group, Anglo American, Sasol, Naspers and Standard Bank. The main stock index is the FTSE/JSE top 40, which tracks the performance of the 40 largest South African companies in terms of investable market capitalization. It was created in 2002 by a joint venture between JSE and the FTSE Group and is widely considered to be the benchmark index for the South African stock market. The index constituents are screened for eligibility and reviewed periodically. Part of the same headline series are the broad FTSE/JSE All Share Index (tracking all securities on the Main Board) and the FTSE/JSE Large Cap, Mid Cap and Small Cap indices.